East Side Access is a public works project being undertaken by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) in New York City, designed to bring the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) into a new East Side station to be built below and incorporated into Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan. It is expected to be operational by 2024.


[hide]*1 Purpose

[edit] PurposeEdit

Access to the East Side of Manhattan has long been a wish of LIRR riders who work there but must use the Long Island Rail Road's Manhattan terminal at the congested Pennsylvania Station on the West Side, which is shared with Amtrak and NJ Transit riders. A 1998 study showed that only 36% of all jobs in Midtown are within walking distance of Penn Station, while almost 70% are within walking distance of Grand Central, the other major Manhattan rail terminal. (There is some overlap, and some jobs are not within walking distance of either facility.) Direct service to the East Side would allow many riders to walk to work, and others to use fewer subway and bus transfers, cutting up to 40 minutes off their daily travel time. The addition of a new Manhattan terminal will also increase capacity on the LIRR.

The new LIRR East Side station under Grand Central Terminal will offer new entrances, a concourse, eight tracks on four platforms lower than the existing Metro-North lower level tracks, and a mid-level mezzanine. This new station would allow easier transfers for commuters travelling between Long Island on the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad destinations (in the Bronx, Westchester County, the Hudson Valley, and Connecticut), and the New York City Subway. The new terminal will increase the number of tracks at Grand Central from 67 to 75, and be reached by high-rise escalators.

Initially the East Side Access (ESA) project was supposed to reduce congestion at Penn Station and allow Metro-North (MNR) to offer train service to that station via the old New York Central West Side Line and the New York, New Haven and Hartford RR's Hell Gate Line, both currently used only by Amtrak. However, due to ridership growth on the LIRR, the ESA project will simply add critically needed capacity for the LIRR. MNR still plans to offer service to Penn Station, but will likely wait until New Jersey Transit completes its Trans-Hudson Express Tunnel project, which — though significantly increasing New Jersey Transit traffic between New Jersey and New York City — will also expand Penn Station.

[edit] Route and service levelEdit

Extending between Sunnyside, Queens, and Grand Central Terminal, the East Side Access project will route the LIRR from its Main Line through new track connections in Sunnyside Yard and through the lower level of the existing 63rd Street Tunnel under the East River. In Manhattan, a new tunnel will begin at the western end of the 63rd Street Tunnel at Second Avenue, curving south under Park Avenue and entering a new LIRR terminal beneath Grand Central Terminal.

Current plans call for 24-trains-per-hour service to Grand Central Terminal during peak morning hours, with an estimated 162,000 passenger trips to and from Grand Central on an average weekday. Connections to AirTrain JFK at Jamaica Station in Jamaica, Queens, will facilitate travel to John F. Kennedy International Airport from the East Side of Manhattan.

A new LIRR train station in Sunnyside at Queens Boulevard and Skillman Avenue[1] along the LIRR’s Main Line (into Penn Station) will provide one-stop access for area residents to Midtown Manhattan.[2] The station may spur economic development and growth in Long Island City.

[edit] Construction history and progressEdit

Construction of the line to Grand Central was begun in November 1969 (see IND 63rd Street Line) as the lower level of a cut-and-cover project to build the New York City Subway's 63rd St Line. The MTA's contractor floated premanufactured four-chamber tunnel boxes into place in the East River and sank them to create the East River crossings for the subway and the LIRR. After a long delay caused by New York City's fiscal collapse of the 1970s, the 63rd St subway line and LIRR tunnel were completed as far as 21 St in Long Island City. Between 1995 and 2001, the 63rd St subway line was connected to the Queens Blvd. corridor, and the LIRR tunnel was extended under 41 Avenue in Queens to the west side of Northern Blvd. The western end of this tunnel sat under Second Avenue at 63 Street.

The current East Side Access Project represents the construction effort to complete the line to Grand Central Terminal. After voters in New York approved a bond issue to provide state funds to the project, the federal government committed to provide $2.6 billion to help build the East Side Access project by signing a Full Funding Grant Agreement (FFGA) in December 2006.[3] The construction contract for a one-mile tunnel in Manhattan west and southward from the long dormant lower level of the 63rd Street rail tunnel to the new station beneath Grand Central terminal was awarded on July 13, 2006, to Dragados/Judlau, a joint American-Spanish venture (the American company is located in College Point, Queens, NY).[4] The total contract award is $430 million,[4] and is utilizing two large tunneling devices owned by the Spanish firm.[5]

Dragados/Judlau created a launch chamber for tunnel boring machines under Second Avenue at 63rd St using a controlled drill-and-blast method, then assembled and launched each 640-ton machine. The first TBM was launched west and southbound from the 63rd Street tunnel in September 2007 and reached Grand Central in July 2008.[6] The second machine began boring a parallel tunnel in December 2007 and had completed its tunnel at 37th Street September 30, 2008.[7][8] Geocomp Corporation was hired to monitor the boring, using a battery of instruments to record vibration, ground settlement and any tilting or drift suffered by the TBM. The instruments include inclinometers, extensometers, seismographs, observation wells, dynamic strain gauges, tilt meters and automated motorized total stations (AMTS) with prismatic targets.[9] The next step in construction is to back the TBMs out of the tunnels and cast-in-place concrete sections placed to create the lining.[10] Each tunnel will be 22 feet in diameter and carry trains 140 feet beneath street level.[11] The TBMs bored an average of 50 feet per day. Cross-connections between the tunnels are being created under Park Avenue, between 49th Street and 51st Street, by controlled drill-and-blast; the work began in mid-July 2008 and was expected to require between six and eight months to complete.[6]

In Queens, Pile Foundation Construction Company is building an $83 million open-cut and deck project, which is extending the tracks under Northern Blvd into Sunnyside Yard, and creating an area that serves as both the launch chamber for soft-bore Queens tunnels, connecting the 63rd St line to the main LIRR branches, and an interlocking and emergency exit and venting facility.[12][13] Perini Corporation was awarded a $161 million contract to reconfigure Harold Interlocking, increasing its capacity to accommodate Grand Central-bound trains and accept new yard lead tracks to allow trains to enter the storage yards. On February 15, 2008, MTA awarded Dragados-Judlau a $499 million contract to excavate the LIRR station cavern and track wye caverns. On September 10, 2009, MTA awarded Yonkers Contracting Company a $40.76 million contract to demolish a building at 44th St and construct a ventilation plant and station entrance. On September 28, 2009, MTA awarded Granite-Traylor-Frontiere Joint Venture a $659.2 million contract to employ two 500 ton slurry TBM machines to create the tunnels which will connect the LIRR main line and Port Washington Branch to the tunnel under 41 Av (the 63rd Street tunnel).[14][15] Four tunnels, with precast concrete liners, will total 2 miles in length. [1][2]ESA Project Information Center==[edit] Cost inflation and community impact== The East Side Access project's estimated cost has increased from $3 billion in 1998[citation needed] to US$6.3 billion in 2006.[4] Though construction work is ongoing, the completion date for the project has been continually pushed back by the MTA. Once thought to be operational by 2013, the MTA is now projecting a September 2016 completion date.[16]

Given the massive size of the project, the plan has aroused concerns and opposition. In 2005, businesses and Cardinal Archbishop Edward Egan began to express concerns about the tunneling process. Egan in particular is concerned about the impact on St. Patrick's Cathedral, which faces Fifth Avenue with its back on Madison Avenue north of 50th Street. The project is proposing that an air vent be placed south of 50th Street and east of Madison Avenue, just outside the existing trainshed.[17]

[edit] Side effectsEdit

East Side Access is likely to affect commuting patterns in Manhattan and put greatly increased passenger loads on the already overcrowded IRT Lexington Avenue Line, the sole East Side subway line, as well as on surface bus routes on the East Side. The project has, therefore, focused attention on the long-delayed Second Avenue Subway along the far East Side of Manhattan, which is now back under construction. It is expected to relieve north/south commuting pressure emanating from Grand Central Terminal.

At the same time, East Side Access will reduce the load on morning northbound rush-hour E service between Pennsylvania Station and Midtown East.